Nu ska vi se om vi kan få upp lite från JAMROCK 2010 här på bloggen.. Kan i alla fall dela med oss av klippen från första kvällen. Det blev Uptown Mondays som warm up och ofourse HOT MONDAYs (which is the best party of dem all if u ask us) på limelight, som har varit vårat andra hem på Jamaica sådär 5 ggr i veckan. So here comes di pics and di clipz from HOT MONDAYs 11 Jan 2010 🙂 Enjoy!
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Prins William av England och hans fru Kate Middleton befinner sig just nu på en officiell resa till Karibien. Kate har charmat hela världen med sin färgsprakande garderob full av brittisk design, bland dem kungliga favoriterna Roksanda, Alexander McQueen och Jenny Packham blandat med lite mindre kända märken.
Även om Kate Middleton inte är blyg i fråga om färg, så har vi nog aldrig sett henne ta i så mycket som nu. Hej då pasteller – här är det riktigt kräm i färgerna. Damernas Världs favorit? Den underbara metallicklänningen från Vampire’s Wife i vårens stora trendfärg: ”hot pink”, eller starkt cerise som vi på svenska skulle uttrycka det.Ac Kingston, Jamaica ligger i närhet till Heliga trefaldighetskyrkan och ståtar med gemensam lounge, bibliotek och tennisplan. Hotellet har totalt 219 rum fördelade på 6 våningar. Gästerna kan simma i en bassäng, medan boendet erbjuder utsikt över staden. AC Hotels by Marriott erbjuder en modern och sofistikerad upplevelse. Med ett fokus på en minimalistisk och funktionell design, kan gästerna uppskatta både stil och komfort. Strävan efter att ge en autentisk känsla med lokal karaktär gör varje vistelse unik. AC Hotels by Marriott erbjuder också en uppsjö av bekvämligheter, inklusive utmärkta restauranger och träningsanläggningar. Rummen är utrustade med personligt kassaskåp, strykjärn med strykbräda och IDD-telefon samt ett utrustat badrum med dusch, hårtork och handdukar. De är också inredda med elegant möblemang.
Fler än 14 boenden är belägna i distriktet New Kingston. The Courtleigh Hotel & Suites med betyg 8.2/10 är ett bra 4-stjärnigt alternativ. Det ligger 2,6 km från sevärdheten och erbjuder 24-timmars reception, transfer och portvakt på plats. Du kan boka ett rum med luftkonditionering, Wi-Fi och kabel-TV-kanaler för ungefär 1796SEK per natt. Ett annat toppboende är The Spanish Court Hotel till priset av 1649SEK per natt, som erbjuder sjukvårdsbetjäning, fitness lektioner och barnsängar på plats. The Knutsford Court Hotel är ett hotell med betyg 7.0/10 till priset av 1154SEK per natt. Ta reda på fler hotell i detta område här.Det finns 6 hotell och andra boenden i Kingstons centrum att välja mellan. Vi rekommenderar Tropical Manor Inn Half-Way-Tree som det bästa hotellet med 24-timmars reception, tvätt och tidningar, som ligger 0,8 km från centrum. Klicka här för att se fler centrala hotell.
Enligt 357 recensioner, finns det 17 hotell med utomhuspool i Kingston. The Spanish Court Hotel (med betyg: 8.8/10) med sjukvårdsbetjäning, fitness lektioner och barnsängar är ett perfekt boende med priser från 781SEK per natt. Det ligger i distriktet New Kingston och har restaurangen South Beach Cafe i närheten. Rockhampton Retreat Guest House med betyg 7.0/10 är också ett bra 3-stjärnigt boende med golfbana, flygplatstransfer och tvätt för 1154SEK per natt. Besökare kan koppla av i poolbaren och lounge baren eller äta mat i restaurangen och i loungen på plats. Ta reda på andra boenden: Courtyard, Jamaica och The Courtleigh Hotel & Suites.
Enligt besökarnas 119 recensioner, finns det 8 barnvänliga erbjudanden att välja mellan. The Courtleigh Hotel & Suites med betyg 8.2/10 för 1796SEK per natt är det bästa alternativet i Kingston. Det erbjuder 24-timmars reception, portvakt och barnsängar, samt 24-timmars reception, transfer och portvakt på plats. Besökare kan njuta av luftkonditionering, Wi-Fi och kabel-TV-kanaler i lyxiga och modernt inredda rum. Du kan också boka The Spanish Court Hotel (med betyg: 8.8/10) för ca 1649SEK per natt. Detta barnvänliga boende erbjuder sjukvårdsbetjäning, fitness lektioner och barnsängar på plats. Klicka här för att se fler familjevänliga hotell.Välj det bästa budgetboendet bland 9 erbjudanden i Kingston. Ett av de bästa budgethotellen är Rockhampton Retreat Guest House med betyg 7.2/10 till priset av 807SEK per natt, som erbjuder golfbana, flygplatstransfer och tvätt. Deez Bed & Breakfast är också ett bra val med betyg 8.0/10 till priset av 460SEK per natt. För att se fler billiga hotell klicka här.Enligt Booked.se:s resedata, finns det 3 erbjudanden för par. Ta reda på Wyndham Jamaica med betyg 6.4/10 med tvätt, rumsbetjäning och shopping service. Det ligger 1,6 km från MegaMart och kostar ca 911SEK per natt. Andra lämpliga alternativ för par hittar du här.
Enligt Booked.se:s resedata, gillar besökare att bo på The Courtleigh Hotel & Suites (med betyg: 8.2/10), som erbjuder 24-timmars reception, portvakt och barnsängar. Det ligger 10 minuters promenad från Devon-huset. Du kan också boka Terra Nova All Suite Hotel med betyg 8.2/10 för ca 1753SEK per natt. Det är beläget 1 km från sevärdheten och erbjuder transfer, barnpassning och rumstädning. För fler lämpliga alternativ klicka här.
Fler än 144 recensioner av besökare kan hjälpa till att hitta det bästa boutiquehotellet i Kingston. Vi rekommenderar The Spanish Court Hotel med betyg 8.8/10 som det bästa boutiquehotellet för 1649SEK per natt med sjukvårdsbetjäning, fitness lektioner och barnsängar på plats. Ett annat rekommenderat boende är Strawberry Hill med betyg 7.8/10, som erbjuder 24-timmars reception, 24-timmars säkerhet och tidningar på plats. The Jamaica Pegasus Hotel med betyg 7.0/10: ett 5-stjärnigt hotell med privat bassäng, hälsocenter och barnsängar på plats. För att se fler boutiquehotell klicka här.
Om du letar efter en lyxvistelse i Kingston, erbjuder vi 5 boenden att välja mellan. Ett av de finaste lyxhotellen i Kingston är The Spanish Court Hotel med betyg 8.8/10 — det har fler än 135 positiva recensioner från våra besökare. Det kostar 1649SEK per natt och erbjuder sjukvårdsbetjäning, fitness lektioner och barnsängar på plats. Klicka här för att ta reda på andra populära 5-stjärniga ställen att bo på i Kingston.
We have focused on the incredibly rich literature regarding Linnaeus’ world of ideas, as well as interpretations and comments on the different dissertations, instead of translating the Linnaean dissertations verbatim. Thanks to the Swedish researchers and their meticulous efforts we have obtained an immense source material, enabling us to approach Linnaeus and his dissertations from important angles.And ultimately, there is a significant difference between archaeology and forensics: In archaeology, we don’t have to worry that our interpretations are responsible for condemning an innocent for a crime (?) committed more than 2000 years ago.The wild apple originated in Central Asia, and spread westward along the Silk Road. The number of apple varieties have since increased greatly, both spontaneously and due to intentional selection and inoculation. Pliny the Elder, back in Roman times, discussed the art of grafting and mentions some 20 different varieties of apples. Parkinson (1640) described 58. By the nineteenth century the number reached more than 600, and today we have about 7,500 cultivars worldwide.
The incubation time can sometimes be as long as 40 years, but the speed with which the disease develops and how it manifests itself differ widely. As with many other diseases it depends on the strength of the immune system of the person contracting it. It does not seem, however, to be especially infectious, and people living in the same family as an infected individual sometimes remain healthy. Amongst other organs, leprosy hits the nerves and the skin; lumps and swellings develop, and eventually the bones themselves are affected, causing a condition called Facies leprosa in which the hard palate and nasal bone atrophy and corrode. Since the bacteria also attack the middle bones of the hands and feet, fingers and toes eventually drop off too. The loss of sensation can lead to secondary risk and injury, since it can lead to reduced mobility and impaired speech and vision. It is usually such secondary diseases, such as blood poisoning, that are the cause of death.
Four more catalogues were published: Kinetic Jottings. Rare and Curious Books in the Library of the Old Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics (1995); Old and Rare Books on Materia Medica in the Library of the Swedish Pharmaceutical Society (1997); and finally Ars medica Svecana 1571–1921 (2008), presenting rare and famous Swedish medical books in the Hagströmer Library. The second most recent catalogue is Odontologia (2015) with important and early printed books on dentistry in the library of the Swedish Dental Society. All books described in the above catalogues, with the exception of the ones described in Kinetic Jottings, are now assembled under one roof in the Hagströmer Library.Hagströmerbibliotekets föreläsningsserie för hösten 2014 vill uppmärksamma samlarna och deras samlingar och inleddes den 8 oktober då Helena Backman, berättade om Bergianska Biblioteket. Peter Jonas och Bengt Bergius byggde under 1700-talet upp en rik samling med böcker från 1400-talet och framåt, till största delen bestående av botanik, reseskildringar och naturvetenskap av sin tids mest framstående vetenskapsmän, men även tryck och handskrifter inom en mängd andra ämnen. Efter bröderna Bergius bortgång donerades deras boksamling bestående av ca 10.000 volymer till Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademin, idag deponerad på Stockholms Universitetsbibliotek, för vars specialsamlingar Helena Backman ans
varar. Helena gav en strålade beskrivning och visade bilder av några av rariteterna i Bergianska Biblioteket, framför allt botaniska praktverk.
Very little is known of Valverde´s life. He was born in Amusco, a small village in the province of Palencia in Northern Spain and studied philosophy and the humanities at the university in either Valladolid or Palencia. After graduation he continued his studies abroad like many other young students at the time. In 1541 he arrived in Padua in Northern Italy where one of the best medical universities in Europe was located and where Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) taught anatomy. Valverde´s first year there is largely unknown, but he probably studied under both Vesalius and Realdo Colombo (c. 1515-1559) who was appointed to the second Chair of Surgery there. The meeting of Columbo and Valverde had a decisive impact on Valverde´s future success. During the following years he followed Columbo first to Pisa where Columbo was appointed to the Chair in anatomy and Valverde worked as his assistant, and then in 1548 they travelled to Rome where Valverde´s career continued to flourish. By 1555 he was teaching medicine in the Hospital of Santo Spirito and when St Ignatius of Loyola, co-founder of the Jesuit order and who later was canonized died in 1556, Valverde performed the autopsy. His medical prestige within Vatican circles was high and he became physician to Cardinal Juan Alvarez de Toledo, Archbishop of Santiago and first General Inquisitor of Rome, to whom Valverde also dedicated his book in 1556.
There still are a few things to see; if you look carefully you will find several corals and other fossils, hundreds of millions of years old, some not so old horns from deer, and you may even find the little hedgehog in one of the private offices if you are invited there. And there is pelt of a black fox from the early 20th century which was supposed to be worn by ladies around the neck to keep them warm – but the main purpose was surely to make them look elegant. It still has all its four paws and head in place. Fashion and taste change … Don’t worry if you spy rats on some of the book shelves – they are fakes! The first edition of Brunschwig’s famous “Grosse Distilierbuch” left the press on February 12th, 1512. It is a gigantic work, far more than a mere book on distillation, a manual rather of pharmacological therapeutics. Brunschwig has here brought together his entire medical knowledge. It is a folio volume of 363 leaves illustrated with nearly 200 large and small woodcuts all coloured by a contemporary hand. The book is especially remarkable for the richness of its illustrations. There are 130 woodcuts of stills. Other woodcuts (some repeated) show blood-letting scenes, scenes at the sick-bed, various pictures of physicians with their urine flasks, apothecary’s shops, etc. and finally several interesting anatomical illustrations, e.g. two representations of the eye, a viscera man, a man with the thorax opened, showing the heart, large cut of a phrenological head (showing the location of the memory ). Brunschwig advises the reader not to place too much reliance on the publisher’s choice of illustrations ”for the figures are nothing more than a feast for the eyes, and for the information of those who cannot read or write.” Many were borrowed from earlier works, but the fine title woodcut of an early alcohol still with cooling-coil and several other cuts of distilling vessels appear here for the first time. I am pleased to have been acquainted with Birger Strandell (1901–1993), whose collection of Linnaeana was the largest outside of Uppsala and which was acquired by the Hunt Botanical Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, in 1968. The Strandell Collection contains a complete set of Linnaeus’ 186 dissertations, all accessible online today. I was also instrumental when two other great Linnaean collectors started to build their collections: Sven-Erik Sandermann Olsen in Copenhagen, whose collection (Bibliotheca Linnaeana Danica, ca 5000 items) is housed in The Danish National Library of Science and Medicine since 1989. The other collector was Torbjörn Lenskog whose Linnaean Collection now is one of the treasures in the Chiba Natural History Museum in Japan.Mattioli’s commentary on Dioscorides was the most frequently reprinted herbal of the sixteenth century. The success of his work was phenomenal. There were editions with both small and large woodcuts but it is chiefly known from a small number of editions illustrated with over 1,000 large (nearly full-page) woodcuts, the ”grand Mattioli”. These large figures of plants are in every way immeasurably superior to the small woodcuts. The present Valgrisi edition of 1585 is one of those containing large-sized figures. The book has over 1,700 pages divided into two thick volumes, containing 1,031 woodcuts of which 932 are of plants and 99 of animals and genre scenes. An appendix on distillation can be found at the end, which is illustrated with six large woodcuts depicting furnaces or distillation towers. The designers of the woodcuts were Giorgio Liberale (1527– ca. 1579), an Italian artist from Udine, and Wolfgang Meyerpeck (ca. 1505–1578), a German woodcutter active in Prague.
The next stage of development, after horse carriages, was the introduction of railroad and steamboat ambulances. Not least did the founder of the American Red Cross, Clara Barton, advocate that treatment of the wounded during the Civil War begin already in the battlefield. And so we finally end up with the twentieth century airborne transport of today. We should be grateful that most of us won’t need to recourse to camel-dhoolies, such as the ones Thomas Longmore described in 1869. But should you find yourself in crisis without a camel, it is good to know that the technique works equally well with an elephant.
Syphilis arrived in Denmark in 1497 and then spread to Sweden. At first, the disease was mostly aggressive; later, its advance could be broken down into three phases. They tried every possible (and impossible) way of curing or relieving it: starvation cures, bleeding, laxatives, extract from the wood of the guajac tree, alum and zinc salves. Mercury was also commonly used as a medicine before the advent of penicillin, in the form of ointments, pills, injections and an inhalant. It did have a certain effect, despite what we know today of the element’s toxicity. Arsenic was another poison that was experimented with medically (including the Ehrlich-Hata compound 606) – naturally with serious side effects as a result. Sometimes, the wrong treatment could even lead to amputation. For a long time, doctors found that relief could be obtained by inoculating syphilis patients with malaria; they contracted a different disease but at least they were free of the very worst symptoms of their syphilis. Perhaps any price was worth paying to be spared the third phase of this terrible disease.Bone material in the anatomical collection kept by the Unit for Medical History and Heritage, KI shows traces of more severe infection diseases, such as leprosy and syphilis. Chronic infection diseases can leave marks on the cranium and tibia, unlike more short-term diseases, which leave behind no skeletal evidence. The Hagströmer Library collection includes pictures of people with leprosy.
We then embark on the journey to find the answers to these, one might argue, impossible questions. In our efforts to do so, skeletal traits or anomalies caused by severe living conditions, disease or trauma are examined, recorded and scrutinized in detail. The next step is to analyze and interpret the findings. How far you choose to go in your interpretations is entirely up to you and your scientific conscience.
Back to the article in Svenska Dagbladet. It eerily foretells the conditions found also today; ”… it is necessary that additional staff can be made available, since the present staff is already under ordinary conditions not sufficient …”Cut, at a waning moon, a firm apple in four equal parts and rub the warts vigorously with these parts, until they bleed, if possible. Then tie the apple parts together, three times crosswise, with a woolen yarn secretly stolen. Bury them under a roof gutter, or, throw them into a stream. When the apple decomposes, the warts will disappear.
Dr Mark Honigsbaum is a medical historian, journalist and academic with wide-ranging interests encompassing health, technology, science and contemporary culture. A regular contributor to The Lancet and The Observer, he is the author of five books including Living With Enza: The Forgotten Story of Britain and the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 (2009) and The Pandemic Century: One Hundred Years of Panic, Hysteria and Hubris (2019) which was named a “health book of the year” by the Financial Times and “science book of the year” in The Times. A former Wellcome Research Fellow, Mark is currently a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Journalism at City, University of London, where he teaches an MA specialism in health and science reporting and is researching the relationship between pandemics and cultural memory.
The first appearance in print of the aphorism is found in the February 1866 edition of Notes and Queries Magazine: “A Pembrokeshire proverb: ait a happle avore gwain to bed, An’ you’ll make the doctor beg his bread.” Now, in solidarity with all our colleagues at the Karolinska University Hospital, and elsewhere in the realm of healthcare, there is good reason not to spread this proverb further. We certainly wouldn’t want our physicians breadless, would we? On the other hand, there is another Swedish proverb with the wording “better breadless than clueless.” I certainly prefer my doctors to have a clue of what’s going on, ergo, perhaps we should yet again consider whether apple eating isn’t the better diet prescription, after all.
As is well known, Gustaf Retzius was one of Sweden’s most prominent scientists in the late 1800s and the first years of the 20th century. He worked in several fields: histology, neurology, anatomy, physiology, to name the most important. He also did research in physical anthropology, and that has been the reason for more or less well founded criticism in later years. Retzius died in 1919, and a year later his widow Anna Hierta Retzius donated his books to Karolinska Institutet. The news article goes on to say that it is a gift ”that in value puts all former donations to shame … an estimated 150 shelf meters … completely outstanding … cannot be valued in money.” The lion’s share of the collection is now housed in the Hagströmer Library and is still of great importance to scientists and scholars of today. A select few of the books will for instance shortly be part of an exhibition, History Unfolds, at The Swedish History Museum. Regrettably the books are not kept as a separate unit of its own, but are found spread throughout the Hagströmer Library, arranged according to subject. Thus, for over two hundred years the necessity of an updated and enlarged volume in English has become increasingly obvious. We have for almost ten years been working with A Linnaean Kaleidoscope to fill that gap. The main bulk of the collection concerns natural history, botany (in the form of herbals) and gorgeous botanical charts and travelogues full of descriptions of the flora and fauna of distant lands. Other subjects covered include history, medicine and theology. There are also numerous private writings, such as Peter Jonas Bergius’s handwritten garden diary, which he kept from 1773 up until five days before his death in 1790. The diary also contains details of their private and social life at Bergielund. The brothers were members of the Royal Academy of Sciences, which not only provided them with a circle friends and acquaintances, but also gave them access to a useful network for the acquisition of scientific literature from all over the continent.Carlander dealt with all kinds of morbidity, even contributions by surgeons were recorded, including two cases of breast cancer. Specific diagnoses unknown at the time can be identified through his careful descriptions, e.g. a case of lung embolism during pregnancy and a myocardial infarction.
In 1939, Gustaf Drake af Hagelsrum published a brief Swedish survey of the Linnaean theses: Linnés disputationer. Approximately half of the dissertations have been translated into Swedish as part of an ongoing project, initiated about one hundred years ago and edited by Svenska Linnésällskapet. From 1921 up to the present, 84 dissertations have been translated into Swedish in the Svenska Linnésällskapets Årsskrift.
One such so-called impresario from Germany heard rumours of Stor-Stina and made his way to Brännäs. It is uncertain if he was called Kempe or Wolfenstein, but it is likely that they both collaborated with Stina at different points in time, with Kempe keeping an account of her in his diary. Stor-Stina agreed to travel to Stockholm and onto the continent to exhibit herself. We know she lived for a while in Gamla Stan and visited England and Germany. The money she earned enabled her to help her old parents and siblings, who lived at a time when the Sami people had only meagre livings to make in the transition from traditional nomadic herders to settled farmers. Apart from being large-limbed and extremely strong, Stor-Stina was said to have been gifted and managed virtually all her own affairs. In the end, she was able to buy her own homestead, where she lived with her sister Sara. Her parents, for their part, found it hard to fully abandon the old Sami ways.
My professional interests recently shifted from prehistoric life-ways to injuries inflicted through criminal actions. This transition started a few years back, just before I began my two-year training at the Police Academy in Stockholm, when a colleague at the Archaeology Department of Stockholm University introduced me to a unique “case”: A man who lived and died around 2500 years ago during the Swedish late Bronze Age. His remains were discovered and exhumed 130 years ago during peat digging in southern Sweden. His bones exhibited no less than 700 various injuries, including blunt and sharp force trauma. For me, this undertaking was to become a natural progression from archaeology into the world of forensics.
Columbus’s voyages were a decisive factor in the spread of the disease, and it has long been a moot point whether he took syphilis from Europe to the Americas, or brought it back from the Americas to Europe – the route which most scholars now prefer, given that no traces of the disease (on skeletons) have been found in Europe from before 1492, while older such finds have been made in the Dominican Republic. Italian doctor and scientist Girolamo Fracastoro (1483-1553) thought that small seeds spread the disease but did not rule out the possibility that astrological and meteorological conditions could also play a part in its pathogenesis. A very handsome volume in the series is number 11, Ur regnskogens skugga. Daniel Rolander och resan till Surinam (2010). This is a translation of a large part of Daniel Rolander’s report from his journey to Surinam in 1755-1756. Besides Arne Jönsson’s translation from the Latin of the original manuscript, it has an essential essay by James Dobreff and photographs by Helene Schmitz. The first dissertation printed in Sweden illustrated with engravings is De cerebro humano printed in 1646. It is a small dissertation in quarto format of only sixteen pages illustrated with four engravings depicting the human brain. The first plate is signed in Latin `Magnus N. Helsing fecit´ giving us a clue to the artist´s identity, Magnus Nicolaus Celsius. He was a skilled engraver who later would illustrate three more dissertations and one treatise. Since a full discussion of all his engravings in these works would require a rather long text, the aim of this blog post is to give a short presentation of Celsius himself and of his engravings in De cerebro humano of 1646.
A large part of the collection has been inscribed personally to Gustaf Retzius and the collection of signatures is like a Who’s Who of the international scientific community at the time. Which leads me to the second part of this small essay. Anna Retzius was very much devoted to the work of her husband and you can find notes here and there in her hand explaining how she (and Gustaf) wanted the legacy to be handled. This is true not just of the books but just about everything. A German translation of the several volumes strong Natural History of Man by James Prichard; Naturgeschichte des Menschengeschlechts. Nach der dritten Auflage des englischen Originals mit Anmerkungen und Zusätzen hereausgegeben von Rudolph Wagner & Friedrich Will, Leipzig, Leopold Voss, 1840–1848, is to be found in the Retzius collection. In volume 3:1 Anna has written: ”This book has belonged to my beloved husband Gustaf Retzius’ dear father Anders Adolf Retzius, who in my youth was my good friend and bestowed me his valuable collection of autographs. Anna Hierta-Retzius, June 12, 1923.” Besides contributing interesting provenance information, the inscription makes you wonder. Whatever happened to the collection of autographs?
Exhibitions in the Library. This spring’s standing exhibition with rare books in botany, pharmacy art and surgery selected by Ove Hagelin will remain during the autumn.According to a surviving medical report, Stina Larsdotter was examined by the Swedish Society of Medicine at Karolinska Institutet when she was 18 years
old. They measured her body and noted down interesting phenomena, such as that she never menstruated, was prone to fainting, and was in chronic pain – symptoms that are consistent with the condition known as gigantism.
What is less known is that their vast collections of natural-history specimens, including a herbarium that outrivalled Linné’s own, insect collections, books and monographs that the brothers kept at Bergielund are still preserved today. The printed books and a small portion of the handwritten material are now kept as the Bergius Library at Stockholm University Library and the archive material and copies are at the Royal Academy of Sciences; the herbarium is maintained by the Bergius Foundation in the Bergius Botanic Garden. However, it is important to remember that all these various material sources are part of one and the same context, and it is sometimes not that easy to decide what belongs to which category.The 186 dissertations, practically formulated by Linnaeus and defended under his presidency, usually present new knowledge, claiming to contribute to the advancement of natural history and medicine. Furthermore they have an international touch, reporting findings from exotic parts of the world, and sometimes being defended by disciples from other European countries. Petra Molnar earned her PhD in Osteoarchaeology from Stockholm University in 2008 and graduated from the Swedish Police Academy in 2014. She recently participated in the Visiting Scientist Program offered by the Forensic Anthropology Unit at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner’s Office in New York City. She is currently working as a Crime Scene Investigator and Forensic Anthropologist at the Swedish Police Authority in Stockholm, Sweden. The pandemic of Covid-19 has seen a renewed interest in medical history and the sort of expertise only professional historians can offer. But how can historical perspectives inform scientific responses to emerging infectious diseases and could an appreciation of the deep history of pandemics have contributed to better responses to Covid-19? Drawing on their extensive research on the history of epidemics and pandemics, the two distinguished speakers will put recent experiences into historical perspective, while posing questions for the future.
The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, secretes a number of different hormones. While it was discovered in antiquity, its function was long a mystery. Greek physician Galen (c. 129-199 A.D.) thought its purpose was to supply the nose with mucous (!). A pituitary tumour is the most common cause of gigantism/acromegaly. Descriptions of exceptionally tall people can be found far back in human history, but it was not until the second half of the 19th century that the disease was linked to pituitary tumours. In 1886, French neurologist Pierre Marie (1853-1940) described a disease involving the abnormal growth of the bones of the face, hands and feet. Acromegaly, as it is called, derives from the Greek akros (extremity) and megalos (large), and unlike gigantism only affects adults between the ages of 30 and 50, who, since already fully grown, are generally only affected in the extremities and the face. Nowadays, a combination of drugs, surgery and radiotherapy is available for patients with such tumours, and there are ways to contain the size of the tumours along with the hormone secretion that causes the abnormal growth, making it possible to slightly reduce the size of the extremities. There are also cases in which one or more of a patient’s ancestors had the same condition.In Lidande och läkedom I and II Nils Uddenberg paints a broad-brush picture of the growth of Western medicine from ancient times to around 1950, and reveals how people have tried to handle disease and death over the millennia. He describes developments in the theory and techniques of medicine, and leading us through the plagues that claimed millions of lives chronicles how people have tried, more or less successfully, to overcome such devastating epidemics. Presenting a cast of influential physicians, often with detailed biographies, Uddenberg surveys the global stage, albeit with a fond focus on his native Sweden. Accounts of individual suffering over the ages and the treatments offered add substance to his history, while the abundant illustrations, many of which were taken from the Hagströmer Library collection and with many objects exclusively photographed for this work, lavishly complement the text.
Moderna Museet are at present showing an exhibition called Life Itself (Livet självt) which tackles the not so small issue of the meaning of life itself, as it were, … Or rather how different artists have tried to approach this question since the earliest years of the 20th century. It is not my place to judge how well the various well-known and not-so-well-known creative “expressionists” have succeeded. However, one of the exhibits, a plate from Ernst Haeckel’s Kunstformen der Natur (Art Forms in Nature), is on loan from the Hagströmer Library. Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) was one of the most prominent scientific and scholarly personalities in the 19th century and well into the 20th and he made contributions to several disciplines; zoology, comparative anatomy, embryology, philosophy etc, etc. Some of his views and conclusions are quite obsolete today as for example his work concerning human races. Kunstformen der Natur (Leipzig & Wien, Bibliographisches Institut, 1899–1904) consists of 100 colour and black-and-white plates and the imagery is striking. Every plate has depictions of several organisms and the symmetry of the arrangements is immediately obvious. It has been said that this reflects Haeckel’s world view.
The first of the three ”Dutch” naturalist and physicians who visited Japan was the German Engelbert Kaempfer, who stayed at Deshima in 1690-92, and whose illustrated Japanese Flora appeared as an appendix to his Amoenitatum exoticarum (1712); 83 years later the Swede Carl Peter Thunberg, who had learned Dutch, arrived at Deshima, where he stayed for nine months in 1775-76. In 1784 Thunberg published his important Flora Japonica, which has given him the name of the ”Linnaeus of Japan”; the third great physician was Philipp Franz von Siebold who arrived to Deshima in 1823 and established a school of medicine and a clinic for the treatment of patients. In 1827 the 25-year-old Keisuke Ito (1803–1901) went to Nagasaki to study botany under Siebold, who had brought a copy of Thunberg’s Flora Japonica with him to Japan. In 1828 Ito wrote his Taisei honzo meiso in three volumes where the Linnaean nomenclature was used for the first time in Japan. He used the scientific names of plants in Thunberg’s Flora Japonica, put them in alphabetical order, and added Japanese names. In the supplement he introduced Linnaeus´s classification system for plants as ”Explanations of the twenty-four Classes” illustrated with 24 colour printed woodcut figures. When Siebold left Japan he presented Ito with his own copy of Thunberg’s Flora Japonica, the very first copy to be seen in Japan. The meeting with Siebold became the turning point in Ito’s academic career. He published a large number of invaluable works on the knowledge of the flora and fauna in Japan. In 1881 he became the first professor of botany at the University of Tokyo and in 1901 entitled baron. In the same year he passed away at the age of 98.The patients were of all social classes, from the bishop’s wife to prostitutes, but servants and craftsmen predominated. Many details give ethnological evidence of life in the city. Carlander could be summoned at any time and went to see the same person up to five times a day if he saw the need. Only in the summer could he be free and leave the city for about three weeks, visiting friends and relatives in western Sweden, but some years he could not find anyone to replace him and from the summer of 1807 he was in constant service for three years.
In 1814, he retired to Stockholm, inaccessible to the many patients who never let him rest. There, he was mainly involved with administration and served as a referee of medical literature for The Swedish Society of Medicine. His vast collection of medical science books, which includes many copies of valuable ancient works, is now kept in the Hagströmer Library.
Höstens föreläsningsserie vill uppmärksamma samlarna och deras samlingar. Samlarna äger kunskapen, intresset och söker målmedvetet med stort tålamod och uppoffringar och världsomspännande kontakter med andra samlare att berika sina samlingar, vilka ofta kan representera omistliga vetenskapliga och kulturhistoriska värden. Utan samlare hade inte forskarna något att forska i.In addition to skeletal samples gathered during archaeological excavations, various anatomical collections are housed in museums and institutions worldwide. In many cases, the acquirement of these samples may be questionable from an ethical point of view, and so the reason for upholding this practice has been questioned. Obviously, there is an ongoing important debate regarding ethics, reburials and the housing of human remains in different institutes, but that is a whole other story.Carl von Linné d ä äger vid sin bortgång 12 kattuntäcken och 283 linneservetter bland mycket annat. Hur är detta förhållande intressant ur idéhistorisk synvinkel? I Annika Windahl Ponténs avhandling Kiär hustru, wackra barn, bodde i ett palais. Identitet och materialitet (2020) är det intressant för att det placerar Carl von Linné och hans hushåll i en materiell kontext: i rum fyllda med ting där den vetenskapliga verksamheten pågår. Linnés karriär utspelar sig till stora delar i ett hushåll där det finns blommiga kattuntäcken och gula stolar, där sammetsrockar finns i garderoben och konterfej på väggarna. I detta föredrag presenteras hushållet von Linné och förhållandet mellan den rumsliga och materiella kontexten och den vetenskapliga verksamheten diskuteras.
While the empirical evaluation of medical proverbs may allow us to profit from the wisdom of our predecessors, we were surprised to find a paucity of prior investigations
of popular aphorisms. Our investigation has allowed us to update the well-known proverb to clarify that, if anything, apple eating may help keep the pharmacist away. Were this borne out, it certainly could have health policy implications.
Once he had graduated, it remained for Block to obtain a licence to practise medicine in Sweden. Clutching his parchment letter, he appeared before the Collegium Medicum in Stockholm on 13 December 1702. Six members gathered this day at the home of president Urban Hiärne to hear Block present his doctoral diploma from Harderwijk and his thesis on arsenic. The assembled doctors took turns in cross-examining him and Bock duly answered their questions. Hiärne himself wanted to know if a person with dropsical scorbutica should be treated with purgative and sudorific medicines, and Block answered in the affirmative. Having passed the interview, he signed the Collegium’s statutes, swore the traditional oath, and paid 150 daler kmt to the Collegium’s treasury. He also became a member of the Collegium Medicum at the same time.Annika Windahl Pontén disputerade i idé- och lärdomshistoria vid Uppsala universitet i maj 2020. Hon har tidigare arbetat som projektledare för Linné2007 vid Uppsala universitet samt på flera museer som guide och projektledare, bl a Livrustkammaren, Museum Gustavianum, Linnémuseet och Uppsala Linneanska trädgårdar. För närvarande arbetar hon som besökskoordinator vid Uppsala universitet och Uppsala universitetsbibliotek. Hon har också ett intresse för 1700-talets dans och musik i allmänhet och Linné, dans och musik i synnerhet.
A teacher of osteology once said: “The worse for them, the better for us.” Although this might sound rather cynical, what she meant was that diseases that afflict people for a long time can leave interesting traces behind in the bones. This makes things very exciting for osteologists and others, who can learn a lot from them about the diseases and how these individuals once lived. Many diseases that were incurable then can be treated today with drugs and vaccines; others become resistant with time, leaving medicines at risk of becoming impotent. Syphilis is one of the diseases of which we find traces in the crania in the anatomical collection at the Unit for Medical History and Heritage, KI. There are also some striking pictures in one of the works in the Hagströmer Library collection.
BRUNSCHWIG, Hieronymus (c. 1450-c. 1512) Liber arte Distillandi de Compositis. Das buch der waren kunst zu distillieren die Composita und simplicia, und das Buch thesaurus pauperum. Ein schatz der armen genannt Mi- carium, die brösamlin gefallen von den büchern das Artzny, und durch Experiment von mir Jheronimo Brunschwick uff geclubt und geoffenbart zum trost denen es begeren. Strassburg, [Johann Grüninger], 1512.Although in general Carlander made efforts to help in any illness, problems with sight and hearing in elderly patients were exceptions: ”Cannot be made young again”.
David M. Morens is Senior Advisor to the Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, U.S. National Institutes of Health, which he joined in 1998. He is trained in pediatrics, preventive medicine, infectious diseases, and virology. Dr. Morens has served as a Public Health Service officer in various capacities at the Center for Disease Control. He was also Professor of Tropical Medicine; Microbiology; Epidemiology, and Public Health at the University of Hawai‘i School of Medicine. Dr. Morens has authored hundreds of scientific articles in major biomedical journals. His career interest for over 45 years has been the study of emerging infectious diseases. He speaks and writes frequently on numerous aspects of emerging diseases, on viral disease pathogenesis, and on the history of medicine and public health.
The eagle is flanked by four colorful plates taken from John James Audubon’s Birds of America, originally published in installments between 1827 and 1838. This work is extremely valuable when complete, but single plates aren’t cheap either. The plates displayed at the Hagströmer Library, however well-made they are, are reproductions made in the German Democratic Republic in the 1960s. On a large desk we have several more of these Eastern German reproductions bound in two cloth-backed hardcovers. The books are quite cumbersome because of their size; 990 x 640 mm. Ove Hagelin, when guiding visitors, likes to turn to the plate depicting the passenger pigeon, and tell the sad story of how this bird, which could once be counted in millions and millions, was exterminated by thoughtless hunters.So, it is evident that the anatomical collection comprises a very valuable source of information, and a clearer image of what happened to that man many years ago emerges. Now new questions arise: What ultimately killed him? What implements were used? Who killed him? And why was he killed? I can’t shake the feeling that he himself might not have been completely innocent. The questions remain unanswered, but will always be open for exploration, discussion and interpretation. A factor that we, as individuals, have less influence over is the emergency transport. We can make that emergency call straight away, but apart from that it is more up to the healthcare system and community service to ensure that competence and resources are at hand and efficiently used. How to shorten the response time is one of many factors that researchers at the Centre for Resuscitation Science are exploring right now. Ann Gustavsson is an archivist/curator at Karolinska Institutet’s Medical History and Heritage Unit. She has a master’s degree in archaeology and another in osteoarcheology. With a background in cultural studies, she went on to read ancient history and archival science. Her speciality is pathological lesions in bone. Ms Gustavsson is currently inventorying, analysing and digitalising Karolinska Institutet’s anatomical skull collection.
Lidén, Johan Hinric, Catalogus disputationum, in academiis et gymnasiis Sveciæ, atque etiam, a Svecis, extra patriam habitarum, quotquot huc usque reperiri potuerunt; collectore Joh. Henr. Lidén, sectio I-V (Upsala, 1778-1790)
A few years ago, the Hagströmer Library was entrusted with an extremely rare collection of odontological pictures and objects from the Department of Dental Medicine at Karolinska Institutet. It had originally belonged to John Wessler (1864-1927), who assembled the collection himself in the early 1900s. As one of the foremost dentists in Stockholm at the time, Wessler was interested in most aspects of odontology: for instance, he was a champion of the modernisation of dentistry programmes, co-founder of the Institute of Dentistry in 1898, an advocate of “social dentistry” and secretary of the Swedish Dental Society. He was also noted in Sweden and abroad as a writer of numerous books and articles as well as a leading chemist who made and sold his own formulae of dental amalgam and dental powder. It was partly thanks to his income from this venture that he was able to finance his love of art. Maybe someone recognises the toothbrush he designed and marketed in 1895? Many patients were children with infectious diseases, worst of all smallpox, for which Carlander introduced vaccination in 1802. Within a couple of years he and his collegues carried out a programme that covered the whole Gothenburg population. 30 April is your last chance to visit Andreas Vesalius and the anatomical Renaissance, a beautiful exhibition of works by the leading anatomist Vesalius (1514 – 1564), including his book De humani corporis fabrica from 1543, the first systematic, fully illustrated description of the human body. Also on display are works by a selection of his predecessors a
nd successors. The exhibition is a joint initiative by Uppsala University Library and the Hagströmer Library.Readers interested in interdisciplinary subjects concerning veterinary versus human medicine and medical history can find out more in the anthology Humanimalt, published in 2020. This is one of a series of three books from Exempla publishers, the others being Främmande Nära and InomUtom, which are due for publication next spring and autumn respectively.
In the form of short essays we have wanted to open doors to the diverse and thrilling scientific world of the 18th century. Bones of contention in the world of the learned have therefore particularly captured our interest – as well as today less discussed Linnaean themes, such as his focus on dietetics, women’s and children’s health and pharmaceutical issues. The form we have chosen, the essay, generously allows space for the immense indigenous literature concerning Linnaeus and his scientific themes.For most of us, summer holidays are over and autumn is approaching sooner than we’d like. The apple season is already on its way, led by the ephemeral White Transparent apple, with its delicate, greenish-white skin and tender juicy pulp. Let’s seize the opportunity to take a look at the Malus domestica, (Borkh., Rosaceae), or common apple. Library viewings in Tingshuset. During the autumn, we accept a limited number of pre-booked groups of up to a maximum of 10 people. Contact us for information. The Nordic Encyklopedia (Nordisk familjebok) published in 1905 stated that for a long period of time Christofer Carlander was the centre around which medical science in Sweden moved. At the same time he was one of the most experienced physicians. For 20 years, 1793-1814, he practised medicine in Gothenburg, and kept records of his 6000 patients. In all they comprise 2200 pages in folio, giving details of the diseases, the treatment and the outcome for each case. Many patients were followed for over ten years with new complaints. The document is unique in Sweden, if not in the world.
It was once common for the sick to be treated with fresh air and nutritious food and to be put to bed outdoors. Many sanatoriums were built to help cure the sick and to keep them isolated. Doctors would aerate (pierce) or gas the diseased lung in an attempt to inactivate the disease and rest the organ; they also might fill the lung with oil. In Sweden, a cardiologist called Clarence Craaford developed a surgical method for removing parts of the ribs via the back, which could alleviate the disease. While excising parts of diseased lung tissue (lobes) was an option, in some more severe cases it was necessary to remove the lung altogether.
Gradually, however, the market for this type of spectacle became saturated, as more “giants”, we well as dwarves, were exhibited at other places, forcing Byrne to drop his price. He developed serious drink problems and was robbed of a banker’s draft that he had bought with all his savings. He also probably suffered from tuberculosis, which exacerbated his failing health. Samtidigt visar Hagströmerbiblioteket böcker och planschverk av några kända samlare, bl.a. Carl von Linné och Charles de Geer, Anders Sparrman, Erik Acharius, m.fl. Block was now free to begin his medical career. A man of his talent should have been able to go far. A lucrative practice in the capital, crowned with the post of personal physician-in-ordinary or professor at one of the medical faculties would have appeared a natural objective. But Block had other plans. Throughout his adult life, ever since his self-imposed exile in Florence, he longed for peace in which to study and a place of shelter away from the din of the outside world. He wanted to live with his books, his chemical experiments and his musings over the problems of science and the paradoxes of life. Block had tasted worldly vice and the vanities of court life, and found them unappealing, so opted for the modest lot of the provincial doctor. Just a week after his acceptance, he appealed to the Collegium Medicum for a recommendation for the position of provincial physician in Östergötland. In the spring of 1703, Block moved to Norrköping, the county’s administrative seat , where he remained, serving as provincial physician, for the remaining twenty years of his life.Hagströmerbibliotekets skriftserie (The Series of Publications issued by the Hagströmer Library) consists of 21 items at the time of writing. It was initiated by Ove Hagelin and the first book was called Om botanikens grunder (On the Foundations of Botany), Atlantis, 2007. This is an edition and translation into Swedish of notes made by one of Carl Linnaeus’ pupils during the scientist’s lectures on botany in 1748. The work was compiled and issued by Lars Bergquist and is a handsome volume of 504 pages. Carl Linnaeus, Lars Bergquist, and Ove Hagelin are names that appear repeatedly in the series and in due course we intend to describe – in no particular order – every item in the series. Another name that is found time and time again is that of the eminent scholar Nils Uddenberg. His latest contribution is number 19, Lidande och läkedom (Suffering and Healing), Fri tanke, 2015.Booking of conference rooms in Haga Tingshus. Groups from Karolinska Institutet can, as usual, book floor 4 for workshops or mini-conferences to the extent that we have staff who can receive and see out. However, the number of participants is limited to 10 because there are limitiations in the house that make it impossible for larger groups to keep sufficient distances. Two goshawks perch on branches and, just as the golden eagle, they seem to be right on the verge of taking flight, looking for prey. In the spacious garden of the Hagströmer Library there is a large colony of rabbits. Visitors and staff alike look at these furry little animals with fondness, often remarking on how cute they are. Goshawks, of course, view the rabbits in a different light … A couple of winters we have been able to see modern-day descendants of the stuffed birds we have inside the library. You watch in fascination as the beautiful birds feed, while at the same time feeling a certain amount of pity for the poor rabbit. You could say that the leprosy bacteria has found the perfect host in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). The animal has a long lifespan, a low body temperature and lives close to human habitation. While it is not found in Europe, it is common in Central and South America. Scientists believe that humans once infected the animal and now it is returning the infection through a variety of routes. These animals are used as pets (for racing) but can also end up on barbecues due to their tasty meat after having been shot and run over. They are nocturnal and in the USA are called “Mexican road-bumps”. The infection risk has been known about since the 1970s, although it seems no one quite realised just how common it is for people to be infected. When the spread of the disease and the habitation of the animal were compared, there was a considerable geographical overlap in the graphs. Awareness has risen in recent years.
A Nordic legend describes how the Aesir gods received their perpetual youthfulness from the apples of Idun. Snorri Sturlasson tells us in the Prose Edda how Idun was abducted from Asgard, at which point the other gods started ageing and were compelled to bring her back again.
If, in the above scenario, we count the minutes, then obviously it is quite another reality than the one where “ambulance care” was first invented. The need for transport of patients is old and worldwide. Already in Antiquity, there were regulations to move the leprosy patients and other terminally ill to places more remote. A couple of thousand years later, when civilian ambulances were introduced, the situation was not very different: in London in the 1830s they were used to swiftly carry cholera patients to hospitals, in order to reduce spread of the disease.Reading room opening hours. During the autumn of 2020, the reading room is only open for pre-arranged visits. We want to advise that we may have to say no to visitors on occasion as the space in the reading room is limited.
The collection extends over roughly 210 running metres. The number of titles is hard to ascertain, but has previously been estimated at approximately 10,000 based on the library’s extant catalogues. One single book was printed in the 1400s, and the rest make up one of the most complete collections of botanical works in Sweden between the 16th and 18th centuries. There are a great many catalogues of collections of natural-science specimens and cabinets of curiosities from all four corners of Europe. Amongst the monographs are catalogues of herbal cures and recipes for medicines collected in the late 1500s and early 1600s, as well as 18th century medical journals – items that Peter Jonas Bergius doubtlessly found fascinating.
The comparisons with the wounds found on the remains from the anatomical collection kept by the Medical History and Heritage Unit, thus provided a plausible interpretation of the shape of the implement used, and the manner of in which the circular fractures were inflicted to the Bronze Age man.Issued as number 12 was a biography of the prominent physician Abraham Bäck (1713-1795) who was a close friend of Linnaeus. The book is titled Abraham Bäck (2010) and the author, Thomas Ihre, is a direct descendant of Bäck. Much of the unique source material he used in writing about his ancestor is in the holdings of the Hagströmer Library.
Before the advent of modern precision tools for cranial surgery, it was desirable, and even essential to survival, for surgeons to have a steady hand. It is with a frisson of fascination that we look at pictures of trepanned skulls with one or more holes drilled into them. The holes were deliberately made and it is hard to believe that anyone survived the procedure. And yet the bone has clearly healed around the fringes of the hole or holes, indicating that the patient did indeed survive. Such holes have soft, rounded edges, and the healing process is first visible after about two weeks. It was essential that the surgeon caused no damage to the cerebral membrane or major blood vessels, and there must have been a serious risk of infection. The anatomical collection at the Medical History and Heritage Unit houses at least two trepanned skulls, one from Peru and one from Egypt.
Among children and adults tuberculosis was frequent, the various forms called scrofula, comsumption or hectic disease. Numerous patients suffered from involvement of the hips or vertebras with resulting collapse and deformation.It took a long time for scientists to find an effective cure for tuberculosis, partly because the bacterium has a very resistant outer membrane and partly because the disease puts itself in a latent state and hides away in the body. Many people were infected without them or anyone else realising they were sick. Doctors started to use X-rays to see who had morbid abnormalities in the lungs, and to analyse expectorations under the microscope, which could reveal the type of mycobacterium they were dealing with. It takes a long time to cultivate the bacterium in the lab. Ventricle rinsing and bronchoscopy are other methods that have been used. If the tuberculous focus is elsewhere, doctors can analyse urine, pus, bone tissue or lymph glands. In 1921 Frenchmen Albert Calmette (1863-1933) and Camille Guérin (1872-1961) succeeded in producing a vaccine, initially one administered orally and then later by injection. Everyone born in Sweden between 1940 and 1975 was vaccinated, but even though the disease is starting to make a comeback in other countries (e.g. Russia), few people are inoculated today. A vaccine does not last a lifetime, and scientists are today working on a more effective agent. Using so-called tuberculin tests they can determine if someone has already been exposed to the tuberculosis bacterium or the vaccine. Chemotherapies (fully synthetic), such as PAS (para-aminosalicylic acid), sulfa, quinine and arsenic preparations, were the first medicines. PAS was developed by the Danish researcher Jörgen Lehmann (1898-1989), who was working at Sahlgrenska Hospital in Gothenburg, and the antibiotic streptomycin by Selman Waksman (1888-1973) and Albert Schatz (1922-1995). Waksman received the second Nobel Prize awarded for tuberculosis in 1952. These medicines, which appeared during the Second World War, are the most used and the most effective. At first, some antibiotics were powerfully allergenic and PAS tasted foul. But by this time, tuberculosis had already begun its decline, very much thanks to rising living standards. Famous sufferers in history include John Keats, the Brontë sisters, Charles Dickens and Alexandre Dumas.
Pott’s disease, or Pott’s hump, is a pathognomonic (typical) abnormality associated with tuberculosis. When the vertebrae collapse and ankylosis (fusion) causes them to fix in place, the back takes on a sharp forward-leaning curvature – or hump. Often, the ribcage and collar bones take on a new shape to help the body cope with the deformation. We have three cases amongst the skeletons in the collection of the Medical History and Heritage Unit at Karolinska Institutet. Tuberculosis is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which was discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch (1843-1910), earning him the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1905. While only one in ten people with the bacteria develop tuberculosis, the disease can lie dormant in the body for decades, often breaking out when the immune system is weakened. White Fox, a Pawnee native American who arrived in Sweden in 1874 to perform, died of tuberculosis, and his remains were taken into the care of KI. The skin from his torso was repatriated later, but not before it had been analysed by microbiologists at KI to ensure that it was no longer infectious. It is interesting to note that Robert Kassman, White Fox’s impressario/partner, died of the same disease (intestinal tuberculosis) 35 years later. Given the properties of the bacterium, it could very well have been the same strain that killed him. It is estimated that about one third of the world’s population carry the bacterium in a latent state. The bacterium is extremely robust and can survive for months outside the body, maybe even longer. My uncle contracted tuberculosis as a child in the 1930s from second-hand clothes and died at the age of two. No one else in the family was infected.
In Sweden, leprosy has been around since the 1100s, and persisted for many centuries. The last patient was discharged from a hospital in Järvsö in 1943, and the last fatality was in 1976. During the Middle Ages, special leprosy hospitals were established to care for these stigmatised people, who, until then, had lived largely as social outcasts, forced to wear distinctive clothing and rattle bells and the like to warn people of their approach. Leprosy was common on Crete, which built several lepers’ hospitals and even a leper colony, Spinalonga, that was still in use by the mid-20th century. Once the island was a place where the sick and their families were deported; now it is a tourist attraction.
Osteologists (bone experts) and biological anthropologists (specializing in human skeletal remains) work with bones on a day-to-day basis. Unlike physicians, we examine the remains of people whose soft tissues decomposed a long time ago. We inspect the shape, appearance and size of the bones. We measure them: lengthwise, widthwise, girthwise. And from these observations, we assess age at death, sex and stature of people from long ago. In addition to this, chemical analyses of skeletal remains, such as DNA, isotopes and trace element analysis shed further light on past populations regarding genetic relationships, diet and much more.
Social worker José Ramirez lives and works in Mexico and has written a book about the many years of suffering he endured after contracting leprosy, an unlikely diagnosis that was not established until the end of the 1960s – 7 years after onset. From that point on he spent many years at Carville leprosy hospital, which was effectively a leper colony. The doctors there were sceptical about his having leprosy since he had not travelled to the countries where the disease was endemic. The most likely disease vector was an armadillo. Different medicines were still being tested at this time, and powerful painkillers often had severe side-effects. One such that made it into production was the drug Thalidomide, which led to serious birth defects when taken by pregnant women. The treatment has improved over the years, but driving the bacteria from the body was once a long and arduous process, which, for the unlucky, caused severe harm before taking effect. This is still the case in many developing countries, where sufferers can sustain damage to the nerves, skin and, eventually, the bone. These days, combination preparations are used involving different types of antibiotics to achieve greater efficacy and avoid resistance. After many years of treatment José Ramirez recovered largely unscathed, since which time he has devoted his professional life to informing people about leprosy and supporting sufferers.
Although it seemd to some of my friends that I should make new illustrations without using those of Vesalius, I did not do so in order to avoid the confusion that could follow, not knowing clearly in what I agree or in what I disagree with him, and because his illustrations are so well done it would look like envy or malignity not to take advantage of them. Mainly becau- se it has been so easy for me to improve them as it shall be difficult for any other who would like to depart from them to make them that good.
Doctor and surgeon John Hunter was working in London at this time. He operated on patients and collected different anatomical samples and bodies both human and non-human. He was feared, since people knew that if his operations failed and the patients died, they could end up in one of his cabinets. He was particularly interested in animals and humans with morbid lesions and distinctive features, so he was naturally drawn to Byrne, especially when it turned out he was dying. As a scientist, I established that his injuries were inflicted in a certain order of events, manner of execution and possible technique(s) used. On a more personal level, I might venture more spectacular conclusions. Yet, as this is not the forum for vivid descriptions of his wounds, it suffices to say: He died a gruesome and painful death. Wessler travelled widely, and was in contact with art dealers and dentists in Europe and the US. A hundred or so letters from cities like Berlin, Paris, London, Rome and New York relating to his purchases survive. From 1911 up to his death in 1927 he collected almost 800 pictures and artefacts dating from about 1400 to 1920. His collection includes over 500 prints and oil paintings, divided roughly equally into depictions of St Apollonia, the patron saint of dentistry, and dental practitioners and their patients. There are also a large number of gold, silver, iron and ivory toothpicks, miscellaneous dental implements (some more alarming than others), amulets, medals and photographs. He donated the collection to the Institute of Dentistry, now the Department of Dental Medicine, in 1923.
This charming illustration belong to Max Taube´s (1851-1915) Der bunte Hans. Ein Bilderbuch zur Entwickelung des Farbensinnes für Kinder von 1-5 Jahren, and Gezeichnet von Adolf Reinheimer, printed in Leipzig in the 1870´s (?). To view more images from this book, and the cover as well, please visit Friends of the Hagströmer Library´s page on Facebook, press here!The most successful of the Hagströmer Library publications was a new edition of Ehret’s plate. The task of engraving and printing a new plate exactly duplicating Ehret’s original was undertaken by Ateljé Larsen in Helsingborg, who had a copper plate printing press. The reproduction was printed on fine handmade paper (Hahnemühle 350 gr), the 24 figures were coloured by hand by Per Wendel and Björn Dal, and mounted with tissue guard in cream-coloured cardboard (1200 g from the Urshult paper-mill). The edition was strictly limited to 100 numbered copies. The last copy, number 100, was presented to Akihito, Emperor of Japan, during the Linnaeus Tercentenary in 2007 at the National Museum in Tokyo, when I had the honour of showing Linnaeus’ copy of his Systema Naturae for the Japanese Emperor and the King of Sweden. The reproduced plate was accompanied by a 32-page pamphlet about Ehret and his plate, for which our graphic designer, Lars Paulsrud, was awarded a diploma for one of the most beautiful prints in the year 2000.
Today there is a growing interest in the legacy of Peter Forsskål, and he was put at the centre of many activities when Sweden and Finland celebrated the 250th anniversary of the world’s first freedom of print act in 2016. A biography and English translation of his Thoughts on Civil Liberty can be accessed at Litteraturbanken. Updates are posted regularly on peterforsskal.info.
With our book we have strived to find our place between Richard Pulteney’s brief overviews and a hopefully forthcoming modern complete translation with scientific comments, made by experts from the different scientific fields. Leprosy is caused by the Mycobacterium leprae bacterium, which comes from the same family as tuberculosis, a disease that became increasingly prevalent with the decline of leprosy in the first decades of the 20th century, partly, it is thought, because people who contracted TB developed immunity to it. The leprosy bacterium was discovered by Norwegian doctor Gerhard Armauer Hansen in 1874 – hence its one-time alternative name of Hansen’s disease. In the book On leprosy and fish-eating we can find Jonathan Hutchinson’s theory that leprosy could be contracted by eating rotten fish (something to bear in mind, perhaps, when shopping for the evening meal!). This Hansen rightly believed to be completely wrong. PER CULLHED, 1:e konservator vid Carolina Rediviva, berättar om bandet och tulpandekorens bokbandshistoria och OVE HAGELIN, Hagströmerbiblioteket, om tulpanens kulturhistoria.Number three in the series is another heavy volume, edited by me, collecting all the material concerning and by Linnaeus published in the periodical Lärda Tidningar (2007). It contains, among other things, a number of reviews of books by Linnaeus – in all probability written by Linnaeus himself! Many rare texts are made available here and the book, whose full title is Herr archiatern och riddaren Linnaeus i Lärda Tidningar 1745-1780, met with critical acclaim and Professor Gunnar Eriksson of Uppsala University called it a “gold mine”.Block was an all-rounder, with a rich intellect that thirsted for knowledge in a wide variety of fields. His writings tell us that he was very widely read and intimately familiar with past and present cultures. Alongside medicine and his language, he had a particular passion of chemistry, alchemy and mineralogy. His style is scintillating and distinguished by a caustic rhetoric and pointed sarcasm. Block was a bibliophile, and as soon as he was drawn to a particular book he had to purchase it “whatsoever she may cost”.By now you aren’t as easily astounded by strange creatures as you were when you first entered the library, and you hardly raise an eyebrow at the sight of a large rooster displaying fancy feathers, that surely must have impressed many a hen in the glory days of the rooster’s life. However, when you are well at ease, you look over your shoulder and get a glimpse of what, at first, seems to be a large shaggy dog in a corner. When your pulse is back to normal you realize that you are looking at a wild boar with glistening tusks, which would (or could) actually have been a far worse encounter than a dog, had it been alive – which of course it isn’t: you are looking at Dr. Schweinkopf who by his mere presence has guarded the library for many years now.
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